11. Usage of Natural Resources

The company discloses the extent to which natural resources are used for the company’s business activities. Possible options here are materials, the input and output of water, soil, waste, energy, land and biodiversity as well as emissions for the life cycles of products and services.

Environmental policy
FMG tailors its corporate policy in all areas to ensure that successful operation is also guaranteed in the future in terms of safeguarding mobility and quality of location in Bavaria. FMG’s environmental policy represents a binding set of guidelines for all company divisions and underlines the high value placed on environmental protection within the company.  

The climate-policy goals are developing quickly, and FMG’s standards are high. These two parameters are the foundations of Munich Airport’s climate goal: From 2030, the airport will be carbon-neutral – the first German airport ever to be so. To achieve this, the Munich Airport Group is reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that can be attributed directly to its operations by at least 60 percent using various technical measures. The remaining 40 percent are to be balanced out by suitable compensation measures, preferably within the region. This climate protection goal adopted in December 2016 is significantly more ambitious again than the previous goal to achieve carbon-neutral growth by 2020. Flughafen München GmbH is investing 150 million euros by 2030 to achieve this target, almost an entire year’s net profit.  
       

Environment management
The Executive Board decided in 2004 to introduce an environmental management system in accordance with the EMAS and ISO 14001 standards, which was certified for the first time in 2005. An environmental management officer was appointed by the Executive Board to roll out, operate, and progressively develop the environmental management system. A management review is conducted each year in line with both standards to inform top management (the Executive Board in this case) of the current state of affairs. The protection of resources is one of many key environmental issues covered in this report. The environmental statement (a requirement of EMAS) provides information on measures and targets, including relating to the protection of resources.    

Since 2005, Flughafen München GmbH has operated a certified environmental management system to the international standards of DIN EN ISO 14001 and the requirements of the EU regulation EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme). It supports those subsidiaries whose activities are of great environmental relevance as they introduce environmental management systems. In 2018, it was audited for the first time in accordance with the updated, more stringent international environmental standard DIN EN ISO 14001:2015, and successfully certified. Over the course of the audit, environmental issues, opportunities, and risks were newly assessed and additional environmental management targets included, for example the «increase in biodiversity». The consideration of life cycles has also increased in importance. Moreover, FMG is supporting subsidiaries whose activities have a high environmental relevance with the introduction of a systematic environmental management system. Allresto, aerogate, and Cargogate have all been successfully recertified already. All employees are called on to conserve resources. Thus for example, an environment module in one training course for ground handling service providers focuses on reducing fuel consumption and on avoiding waste or collecting it correctly.
 


All direct and indirect environmental impacts are recorded and evaluated at Munich Airport. Direct environmental impacts are a direct consequence of the activities of FMG at the location and can be influenced by FMG. Indirect environmental issues result indirectly from the activities of FMG, without FMG having complete control over them.

As passenger and freight handling requires the most resources at Munich Airport, nine related key performance indicators reflect environmentally-relevant consumption values:    
Biodiversity
To integrate Munich Airport into its environment in the best possible way, FMG set about - from the very outset - creating structures that would upgrade the environment in the wider area and link it together. The concept divides the areas in Erdinger and Freisinger Moos into three zones:   
 
Zone I: Airport premises with runway system, buildings, and road
Green areas with over 6,000 additionally planted trees, make up almost two thirds of the airport premises. Specialist care and maintenance has led to a rich variety of vegetation and ecologically valuable spaces, particularly inside the security fence, on the green areas between the runways and their infrastructure facilities. 
 
Zone II: Wooded green belt with structural diversity around the airport premises
With its woods, ditches, and meadows, this area around the edge of the airport acts as sound protection and as a buffer for settlements and agriculture. For instance, more than half of the area around the northern receiving ditch with its near-natural, designed course, is now home to plants that are worthy of protection, such as the pasque flower, ox-eye, perennial flax, and campanul. On the list of particularly protected species are the local marsh gladiolus and fen pondweed. 
 
Zone III: Ecological compensation measures
FMG has now planned and constructed around 450 hectares of compensation area. The aim is to offset the interventions in the natural landscape caused by the building projects. The responsible certification bodies have confirmed that sufficient areas have been cultivated and that these are looked after properly. These compensation areas for conservation, with their new woods and species, are making an important contribution to biodiversity in the region. They are distributed in the agricultural land and ensure species diversity, among other benefits. They are neither fertilized nor mown. 
 
Valuable space for birds
As of 2017, FMG has created around 70 hectares of compensation space in the north of the airport, which are relevant for European species and land protection. The damp depressions in the terrain and the wide, open spaces should benefit, above all, meadow breeders such as the lapwing and Eurasian curlew. The measures are intended as compensation for road and rail works in the east of the airport.





The airport is part of a bird sanctuary
Munich Airport is part of the 4,525-hectare «Nördliches Erdinger Moos» European bird sanctuary, which is home to 40 endangered species of bird, some highly endangered. It includes the 658 hectares of airport meadow around the runways and is an important habitat for endangered species of meadow breeders and also for rare species of plants, reptiles, dragonflies, and butterflies, such as creeping marshwort, sand lizards, ornate bluets, and the dusky large blue.


Protected habitat for meadow breeders and butterflies
To improve the habitats of meadow breeders, FMG set up a project in 2016, entitled «Meadow breeder protection in the area around Munich Airport», receiving specialist support from the Bavarian Ministry of the Environment. To achieve this goal, around 50 hectares of land currently used for agriculture will be used to develop and test preventive concepts and measures by 2020. These will include steps such as nest protection, more extensive cultivation, mowing concepts designed to suit meadow breeders, fencing to protect against predators, and the development of ecological lease agreements with corresponding requirements regarding cultivation.  
  
One of the flagship projects within the Bavarian Environmental Pact is the airport’s voluntary commitment to protect rare species of moor-based butterflies on «Freisinger Moos». Scarce heath butterflies, bog fritillaries, dusky large blues, and scarce large blues are the four at-risk species that will enjoy a new, protected habitat in six appropriate areas in the region, covering a total space of five hectares. These areas were also mown in a manner suitable for these species in 2018, in order to copperfasten the success of the measures already taken. In addition, experts toured the area for the purposes of performing an interim evaluation. The conservation project on butterfly protection will run provisionally until 2020.  
 
Further information: Biodiversity

12. Resource Management

The company discloses what qualitative and quantitative goals it has set itself with regard to its resource efficiency, in particular its use of renewables, the increase in raw material productivity and the reduction in the usage of ecosystem services, which measures and strategies it is pursuing to this end, how these are or will be achieved, and where it sees there to be risks.

Carbon-neutral by 2030 Munich Airport has once again significantly raised the bar for its climate-related goals, to enable it to keep up with the fast-paced development of objectives in climate protection policy and to meet its own targets: 
With respect to the emissions that it is able to impact directly, the airport is to make its operations completely carbon-neutral by 2030 – and will be the first airport in Germany to do so. To achieve this, the Munich Airport Group is aiming to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that can be attributed directly to its operations by at least 60 percent using a wide array of technical measures. The remaining 40 percent will be balanced out by compensation measures, preferably within the region. This climate protection goal was passed by the Supervisory Board in December 2016 and is significantly more ambitious again than the former goal to achieve carbon-neutral growth by 2020. Flughafen München GmbH is investing 150 million euros by 2030 to achieve this target, almost an entire year’s net profit.  

Waste management
Flughafen München GmbH meets every single requirement in the German Waste Management and Product Recycling Act. The number one priority is to produce as little waste as possible. However, waste and scrap products are generated from the operation of the airport – across the board – and these are then collected where they occur in various separating systems, handed over to certified specialist businesses close to the airport, prepared in sorting plants, and then recycled. The small proportion of residual waste that cannot be recycled is converted by the Munich North power plant into district heat and power. Sustainable waste management contributes to generating secondary materials, while also helping to save on costs.


Resource conservation
Flughafen München GmbH is making continuous improvements to the entire process chain as well as to the process for separating and sorting all waste and scrap material. Thus for example a new shredding plant shreds confidential data material promptly «in-house». Sensitive files are not now sent to the disposal firm. The waste paper created in this process is sent to a paper plant for use as a raw material. Since April 2018, one airport employee, certified to LAGA PN 98 (Government/States Working Group on Waste), has been taking samples during building and demolition projects under his own direction, and has thus been ensuring quality controls. A key advantage lies in the fact that the prescribed and most cost-effective disposal form is determined at the same time. 
 
The majority of waste and scrap material is generated by affiliated companies, the companies based at the airport as well as airlines. A custom-designed disposal concept tailored specifically to the party generating the waste is therefore essential for successful resource conservation – from the actual generation of the waste through to recycling and disposal. FMG therefore provides regular information on current waste topics, gives tips on environmentally-friendly conduct, and is on hand to offer advice. 
 
The year-on-year increase in waste is based essentially on the increase in demolition and building renovation works. The «top soil» excavation material, all of which was recycled, lead to a higher recycling rate.     
 
Since 2016, Flughafen München GmbH has used exclusively recycled paper with the «Blue Angel» eco-label. New digital workflows, for example for business trip applications, also help to save paper. 



Who causes what

The majority of waste and scrap material is generated by affiliated companies, the companies based at the airport, as well as airlines. A custom-designed disposal concept tailored specifically to the party generating the waste is therefore essential for successful resource conservation – from the actual generation of the waste through to recycling and disposal. FMG therefore provides regular information on current waste topics, gives tips on environmentally-friendly conduct, and is on hand to offer advice. 
 
Water management
The aim of water management at Munich Airport is to affect the natural water balance as little as possible and arrange the various effects caused by water resource management, drainage, and the provision of drinking and extinguishing water so that they have as little impact as possible. Overall, FMG aims to achieve the following:  

A sewage system stretching for around 300 kilometers collects wastewater at Munich Airport. Depending on the level of contamination, the water is pretreated in the airport’s own plants, retained, added to bodies of water, or sent to the sewage plant in Eitting.  
 
Ground filters protect groundwater
Ground filters in the area around the heads of the runways prevent de-icer from entering into the groundwater. They are used to retain and clean the collected waste de-icer. Regular examinations of the leachate using a TOC measuring system (TOC = Total Organic Carbon) verify their cleaning efficiency. Depending on the level of residual contamination, it is routed to a body of water or – during harsh winters where lots of de-icer is used – sent straight to the sewage plant. The filters at the heads of the north runway and to the east of the south runway are already in operation, a fourth is currently being constructed to the west of the south runway and is due for completion in 2019.  
 
Aircraft de-icer cycle
De-icing vehicles keep aircraft free from ice and snow before take-off. The de-icer dripping off the aircraft during this process finds its way via slit drainage gutters and channels into underground basins. It is then mechanically and chemically treated in the airport’s own recycling plant, before being distilled and converted back to its original state with the use of additives. The recycling rate for the active glycol component in de-icer was around 57 percent for the 2017/2018 season. The average for the last few years has ranged between 41 and a maximum of 59 percent – depending on the weather and taking into account a level of energy consumption suited to the environmental footprint. 




Further information is provided in the integrated report under environmental and climate protection: Resource management


Environmental risks
The aim of the risk management system is to identify events and developments that may have a negative impact on the achievement of strategic and operational targets in good time and develop suitable countermeasures. It takes account of all aspects of entrepreneurial activity – economic as well as environmental and social. The risk manager continually monitors the effectiveness of risk management. Risks are also monitored separately by Internal Audit. The listed environmental risks were identified for the airport as non-producing lines of business.This risk assessment relates to the economic impact in the specified assessment period up to December 31, 2018.   
 
Further information: Outlook: Risks and opportunities report


Scope 1 and Scope 2
In the year under review, it was possible to further reduce the emissions of Scope 1 and 2, i.e. the emissions of the Munich Airport Group. In addition to factors over which the airport has no influence, such as the changes in the German electricity mix and the weather, two things contributed especially to this development: a modification in the calculation (the energy requirement of the pre-conditioned air systems is attributed to the airlines, which thus avoid emissions from the auxiliary power units) and a performance increase caused predominantly by rising passenger figures and the associated increase in energy requirements. This is offset by savings in the amount of 3,667 tonnes of CO2, which almost completely canceled out the increase. The development shows clearly that additional measures are required to achieve the CO2 goal; plans are underway.


Block heat and power plant operates highly efficiently
With its block heat and power plant, the airport generates over half of its on-site energy requirements using natural gas.The waste heat generated from this alone covers almost all of its heating and cooling requirements without requiring the use of additional energy. The airport then covers its remaining heating requirements by procuring district heat from Fernwärmeversorgung Freising. In turn, 50 percent of the purchased district heat – i.e. around 14 Gigawatt hours (GWh) – comes from a biomass thermal power plant in Zolling, which reduces the CO2 emissions by a further 3,000 tonnes approximately per year. If the heat and power were generated separately in the mix applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, the amount of CO2 produced each year would be 40,000 tonnes higher.  

Less than a third of the power used on the airport campus comes from external energy providers. Overall, emissions produced by the external procurement of power and district heat have decreased by 25 percent since 2005. Looking at the Munich Airport Group alone, this figure has fallen by almost 50 percent. This is down to the new, even more efficient engines for cogeneration of heat and power on one hand, and reductions in power consumption on the other.


Renewable energy from photovoltaic systems In its drive to achieve a carbon-neutral airport, Munich Airport is also using renewable energy.
 The first larger-scale system of this type with an installed rated output of around 750 kilowatt was realized in the summer of 2018 on the new P51 parking structure. It generates around 730 megawatt hours of renewable electricity per year and thus saves 423 tonnes of CO2 annually. An expansion will take place in 2019. By 2030, systems with a total output of up to 20 megawatts are planned.


LED upgrade of aprons completed A milestone has been reached on the path toward a carbon-neutral airport: 
After a six-year implementation phase and investment of more than two million euros, the airport has completed the upgrade of the apron lighting to energy-saving LED technology. With 185,000 LEDs in around 1,900 lamps on lamp posts standing up to 34 meters tall, Munich Airport boasts one of the largest LED high mast systems in the world. The new LED lighting impresses with its particularly high levels of energy efficiency combined with better light output, longer service life, and low maintenance costs. Already, the airport is saving around 14,700 tonnes of CO2 through the optimized lighting alone – about one fifth of that is attributable to the aprons. Time for the next major project: The external lighting in the public areas of the airport will be also be switched to LED technology by 2022.


E-mobility on the rise
As part of its climate protection program, Munich Airport uses alternative fuels from renewable energy sources within its vehicle pool: A further 44 electric drive cars have already been ordered.The proportion of electric vehicles is rising significantly: By 2030, they should comprise the lion’s share of the vehicle pool. In 2018, Munich Airport replaced a further 85 of its older vehicles run on gasoline or diesel. Electric vehicles currently comprise more than 20 percent of the current vehicle pool. The six-figure, environmentally-friendly investment is supported by subsidies from the German Ministry of Transport. Compared to 2017, it proved possible to reduce the local emission of CO2 by around 76 tonnes.


Synthetic fuels from waste
The new fuel «C.A.R.E. diesel», which is made from residual and waste materials as well as from renewable raw materials, also promises further potential. A successful practical trial was started in November 2017 in the road sweeper fleet. It has been possible, with approximately 60,000 liters of C.A.R.E. diesel, to avoid around 157 tonnes of CO2 emissions compared to conventional diesel. Use of this fuel has meanwhile been suspended.


Scope 3
One important factor in the climate protection strategy is the new pre-conditioned air systems (PCA systems). Since fall 2016, this technology has been supplying aircraft parked in the parking positions next to the buildings at Terminal 1, Terminal 2, and at the satellite building with pre-conditioned air. As a result, the aircraft no longer need to run their auxiliary power units (APUs), which are responsible for high levels of noise, carbon emissions, and other air pollutants. In 2018, the operating times of the 64 PCA systems increased further, which lead to a reduction of 18,364 tonnes of CO
Flughafen München GmbH together with the airlines and the companies based at the airport also improved other climate protection measures in 2018, such as the environmentally-sound continuous descent operations (CDO) and the optimized taxiing system (ACDM; Airport Collaborative Decision Making), which reduces taxiing times.


 

Key Performance Indicators to criteria 11 to 12

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-301-1: Materials used
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Total weight or volume of materials that are used to produce and package the organization’s primary products and services during the reporting period, by:
i. non-renewable materials used;
ii. renewable materials used.



De-icers used 1)  
  2017/2018
Apron de-icer in t2) 4,699
Aircraft de-icer (Safewing Type I) in m3 5,139
Aircraft de-icer (Safewing Type IV) in m3 879
Recycling rate of Type I de-icer used in % 64.9
Number of days of winter operations 58
1)  Seasonal database/fluctuations in year-on-year comparisons are linked to winter weather conditions. 
 

2) Liquid potassium formate and sodium formate granules.

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-302-1: Energy consumption
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Total fuel consumption within the organization from non-renewable sources, in joules or multiples, and including fuel types used.

b. Total fuel consumption within the organization from renewable sources, in joules or multiples, and including fuel types used.

c. In joules, watt-hours or multiples, the total:
i. electricity consumption
ii. heating consumption
iii. cooling consumption
iv. steam consumption

d. In joules, watt-hours or multiples, the total:
i. electricity sold
ii. heating sold
iii. cooling sold
iv. steam sold

e. Total energy consumption within the organization, in joules or multiples.

f. Standards, methodologies, assumptions, and/or calculation tools used.

g. Source of the conversion factors used.



Energy consumption and emissions      
  2018    
  GJ MWh CO2 (t)
Scope 1: Direct energy consumption/emissions      
Natural gas gas/diesel generating sets CHPP 0 0 0
Natural gas gas/gasoline generating sets CHPP 1,289,542 358,206 71,570
Natural gas boiler plant 18,252 5,070 1,013
Fuel oil gas/diesel gensets 24,228 6,730 1,795
Fuel oil boiler plant 1,937 538 144
LPG 1,121 311 73
Fuel oil emergency gensets 1,721 478 127
Natural gas consumption EFM1) 10,037 2,788 557
Diesel and gasoline 164,269 45,630 12,063
Total Scope 1 1,511,107 419,752 87,341

1)EFM: Gesellschaft für Enteisen und Flugzeugschleppen am Flughafen München (company responsible for de-icing at Munich Airport); associated company

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-302-4: Reduction of energy consumption
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Amount of reductions in energy consumption achieved as a direct result of conservation and efficiency initiatives, in joules or multiples.

b. Types of energy included in the reductions; whether fuel, electricity, heating, cooling, steam, or all.

c. Basis for calculating reductions in energy consumption, such as base year or baseline, including the rationale for choosing it.

d. Standards, methodologies, assumptions, and/or calculation tools used.



Scope 2: Indirect energy consumption/emissions3)   GJ   MWh   CO2 (t)
Purchased power4) 223,259 62,016 33,303
Purchased district heat5) 100,649 27,958 2,978
Purchased natural gas6) 64,238 17,844 3,565
Power supplied to outside companies7) -200,393 -55,665 -29,892
Heat supplied to outside companies -86,515 -24,032 -4,576
Cooling supplied to outside companies -3,870 -1,075 -115
Natural gas supplied to outside companies -64,238 -17,844 -3,565
Purchased power transmitted8) 89,476 24,854 13,347
Total scope 213) 9) 9) 15,045

Scope 3: Other indirect energy consumption/emissions (by third parties)  10)  10)   CO2 (t)
Electrical energy purchases of outside companies - - 29,892
Heat purchases of outside companies - - 4,576
Cooling purchases of outside companies - - 115
Natural gas purchases of outside companies - - 3,565
Fuel for outside companies - - 9,571
Subtotal 9) 9) 47,719
Total annual CO2 emissions  open to influence11)     150,105
Air traffic (LTO cycle)12) - -  
Take-off - - 56,306
Climb out - - 97,381
Idle (taxiing on the apron) - - 174,565
Approach - - 116,348
APU with PCA14) - - 25,532
Engine test runs - - 456
Feeder traffic15) - - 37,992
Total scope 3     556,299

1)
Data collected and reported according to the GHG protocol WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. Principle of operational control applied. To the extent that they are subject to emissions trading, conversion parameters, such as heat values and emission factors in particular, are determined according to the provisions of the German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt). Other conversion parameters are based on the latest publications from the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA).

2)EFM: Gesellschaft für Enteisen und Flugzeugschleppen am Flughafen München (company responsible for de-icing at Munich Airport); associated company

3)Scope -2 emissions reported using the GHG Protocol Scope -2 Guidance (2015) in accordance with the «location-based» method based on emission factors for domestic consumption in Germany, electricity mix, and district heating mix. Net scope 2 emissions with specific emission factors are 0.537 kg/kWh for electricity and 0.213 kg/kWh for district heat from fossil fuels. The total purchased district heat consists of 50 percent district heat from fossil fuels and 50 percent district heat from biomass with a specific emission factor of 0 kg/kWh.

4)45.84 percent of electricity from renewable energy sources (as of 2017 according to section 42 of the German Energy Act (EnWG))

5)50 percent of district heat is purchased from biomass directly from the biomass thermal power plant in Zolling

6)Solely natural gas purchased (baseline year 2018), no renewable energy sources

7)Including the quantity transmitted to outside companies

8)Total power transmitted to outside companies and subsidiaries. The specific emission factor used for purchased power was also used here

9) For physical reasons it is not practical to add heat, cooling energy, and electricity in energy units. The sum can only be used to draw very limited conclusions

10)No information as values cannot be specified for all items

11)Sum of scope 1, scope 2, and the subtotal of scope 3a; this is the comparative value for the reference value taken from the baseline year of 2005 at 162,046 tonnes. The CO2 reference value must not be exceeded in spite of expansion plans and the expected growth

12)Emissions calculated using the LASPORT model for classifying flight operations in accordance with the LTO cycle  

13)Scope -2 emissions calculated using the GHG Protocol Scope 2 Guidance (2015) in accordance with the «market-based» method results in a figure of 9,311 t of CO2. This is based on an emission factor of 0.352 kg/kWh for the Munich Airport network. The other emission factors stated in footnote 3 remain unchanged

14)Calculated from aircraft movements using the LASPORT model, subsequently taking into account the APU emissions avoided by using PCA systems

15)Feeder traffic includes the road traffic caused by passengers, visitors, and employees around the airport

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-303-3: Water withdrawal
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Total water withdrawal from all areas in megaliters, and a breakdown of this total by the following sources, if applicable:
i. Surface water;
ii. Groundwater;
iii. Seawater;
iv. Produced water;
v. Third-party water.

b. Total water withdrawal from all areas with water stress in megaliters, and a breakdown of this total by the following sources, if applicable:
i. Surface water;
ii. Groundwater;
iii. Seawater;
iv. Produced water;
v. Third-party water, and a breakdown of this total by the withdrawal sources listed in i-iv.

c. A breakdown of total water withdrawal from each of the sources listed in Disclosures 303-3-a and 303-3-b in megaliters by the following categories:
i. Freshwater (≤1,000 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids);
ii. Other water (>1,000 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids).

d. Any contextual information necessary to understand how the data have been compiled, such as any standards, methodologies, and assumptions used.

d.

Total drinking water consumption1),2)  
1 m³ corresponds to 0,001 megaliters 2018
Water purchased from utility in m3 986,580
Water consumption per 1,000 traffic units in m3 19.8
1)  Includes all companies on the campus. 
 
 
2) Values are derived as follows: water metering in m3 measured at the drinking water feed points (transfer points) from the water utility company to Munich Airport.


Munich Airport sources its drinking water from the Moosrain water utility company, which extracts it from the tertiary strata via seven water wells at depths of between 94 and 160 meters. The water wells are located in water protection areas at «Obere Point» (surface area 33 ha) and «Oberdingermoos» (surface area 36 ha) in the Oberding municipality.
www.moosrain.de/versorgung/technische-anlagen





Total wastewater discharge1), 2)  
  2018
Total wastewater discharged from Munich Airport to the sewage plant of the Erdinger Moos Sewage Association in m3  2,402,292
Wastewater consumption per 1,000 traffic units in m3 48.2
1)Includes all companies on the campus. 
 

2)The wastewater discharged to the sewage plant consists of domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater, mixed water, and de-icing waste.

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-306-2: Waste
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Total weight of hazardous waste, with a breakdown by the following disposal methods where applicable:
i. Reuse
ii. Recycling
iii. Composting
iv. Recovery, including energy recovery
v. Incineration (mass burn)
vi. Deep well injection
vii. Landfill
viii. On-site storage
ix. Other (to be specified by the organization)

b. Total weight of non-hazardous waste, with a breakdown by the following disposal methods where applicable:
i. Reuse
ii. Recycling
iii. Composting
iv. Recovery, including energy recovery
v. Incineration (mass burn)
vi. Deep well injection
vii. Landfill
iii. On-site storage
ix. Other (to be specified by the organization)

c. How the waste disposal method has been determined:
i. Disposed of directly by the organization, or otherwise directly confirmed
ii. Information provided by the waste disposal contractor
iii. Organizational defaults of the waste disposal contractor

iii.

Waste1)    
In t 2018 Point of disposal and reuse
Recycling    
 Paper, cardboard, and cartons from aircraft2)  - Sorting facilities, paper factory in Munich/Schrobenhausen (wastepaper recycling)
Paper, cardboard, and cartons from buildings 1,508  
Mixed reclaimed materials/waste for recycling from buildings  3,037 Sorting facilities, recycling firms in Eitting, Schwaig, Moosburg, and Munich
Top soil (humus-rich excavation material) 3) 2,776  
Mixed glass 248  
Wood 495  
Bulk waste 852  
Scrap metal containing electronic waste 626  
Other recyclables 4) 204  
Total recycling 9,736  
Other form of reuse (reuse of materials/energy)    
Food waste 5) 1,228 Biogas plant (energy recovery)
Waste from cleaning of aircraft cabin 6) - Munich North power plant (energy recovery)
Waste for disposal/prohibited liquids (terminal areas) 201  
Waste for disposal from buildings 706  
Building site waste (waste from dismantling, conversion, renovation, and maintenance measures)  3,207 Recycling/disposal firms (material recycling/pit filling)
Hazardous waste (FMG fraction only, excluding mineral wool) 321 Recycling/disposal firms (material recycling) or hazardous waste specialists in Munich and Ebenhausen (energy recovery, secondary fuels)
of which are subject to ADR (hazardous goods) rules 7) 251  
Other waste 8) 1032  
Total recycling 6,695  
Landfill waste    
Insulators (mineral wool) 9) 597  
Total landfill 597 Waste disposal site Spitzlberg, Landshut
Total amount 17,028  
1)  All quantities refer exclusively to the disposal processes organized by FMG waste management. This refers to the total figure reported (2018: 17,029 t). 
 

2) Disposal is no longer conducted by FMG waste management. Disposal and transport services were outsourced to a disposal company in April 2011.  
 

3) In 2018, the «disposal» (= recycling) of the «Top soil fraction» was handled by FMG waste management for the first time. The topsoil comes from construction projects (in 2018 from the renovation work on the district heating pipeline). 
 

4) For example foil, lightweight packaging 
 

5) ADR (Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par route): European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road 
 

6) For example runway wear, refuse, old tires, rubber waste 
 

7) Food waste disposal from the Allresto catering area in Terminal 2 only 
 
 
8) Waste from the cleaning of aircraft cabins and catering waste is processed by a disposal firm at the Munich North waste incineration plant/at the power plant in accordance with EC Regulation 1069/2009. Disposal is no longer FMG’s responsibility and has been conducted by a specialist contractor working on behalf of the Erding animal carcass disposal association since January 2011.  
 

9)  Insulators that are collected at a disposal specialist contracted on behalf of the district of Freising and sent away for proper disposal (landfill). Figure has increased in 2018 due to renovation/roof repair work (mineral wool)

Operations at Munich Airport involve a number of substances that are harmful to the environment and water; these must be declared as hazardous goods and transported off site. The vehicles used for transporting hazardous goods were inspected to verify that they are in proper condition and are roadworthy and safe to operate. Employee training on the handling of hazardous goods is held at regular intervals in accordance with legal regulations. In the year under review, 2018, a total of 251 tonnes of waste (previous year: 199 tonnes) declared as hazardous goods were transported away for disposal.  
Further information: Sustainability indicators
Industry-specific additions

De-icers used

 
 
  2017/2018
Apron de-icer in t2) 4,699
Aircraft de-icer (Safewing Type I) in m3 5,139
Aircraft de-icer (Safewing Type IV) in m3 879
Recycling rate of Type I de-icer used in % 64.9
Number of days of winter operations 58
1)Seasonal database/fluctuations in year-on-year comparisons are linked to winter weather conditions. 
 

2)Liquid potassium formate and sodium formate granules

The company responsible for de-icing operations at Munich Airport, Gesellschaft für Enteisen und Flugzeugschleppen am Flughafen München mbH (EFM), uses glycol-based de-icer that is sprayed onto aircraft by de-icing vehicles. The low-viscosity Type I de-icer is mixed with water in a ratio 55:45, heated, and applied to the aircraft at a temperature of 85 degrees Celsius. Type IV de-icer contains thickeners, making it viscous. It is sprayed on cold and undiluted.  
  
The de-icer that drips off the aircraft is collected underground and treated in the airport’s own recycling system. With this recycling process, the aircraft de-icer used is treated and reused. Ground filters in the area around the heads of the runways prevent de-icer from entering into the groundwater, if the wind blows it onto surrounding green areas. At the same time, they are used to retain and clean the collected waste de-icer. Depending on the level of contamination, it is routed to a body of water or – during harsh winters where lots of de-icer is used – sent straight to the sewage plant.

Bavarian Environmental Pact  
Munich Airport is continuing to participate in the Bavarian Environmental Pact for the period 2016 to 2020. The Bavarian Environmental Pact is a driving force behind the development of new methods and areas of focus, aimed at the sustainable development of Bavaria. The new focus topics of the environmental pact are biodiversity and nature conservation. The overriding goal is to improve the ecological, economic and social foundations of current and future generations in Bavaria. Flughafen München GmbH can also identify very easily with this goal and therefore benefits mutually from its involvement in the pact.

13. Climate-Relevant Emissions

The company discloses the GHG emissions in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol or standards based on it and states the goals it has set itself to reduce emissions, as well as its results thus far.

The commitment: Carbon-neutrality by 2030
The climate-policy goals are developing quickly, and FMG’s standards are high. These two parameters are the foundations of Munich Airport’s climate goal: From 2030, the airport will be carbon-neutral – the first German airport ever to be so. To achieve this, the Munich Airport Group is reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that can be attributed directly to its operations by at least 60 percent using various technical measures. The remaining 40 percent are to be balanced out by suitable compensation measures, preferably within the region. This climate protection goal adopted in December 2016 is significantly more ambitious again than the previous goal to achieve carbon-neutral growth by 2020. Flughafen München GmbH is investing 150 million euros by 2030 to achieve this target, almost an entire year’s net profit.                   

CO2 emissions per passenger are sinking further

FMG has lowered carbon emissions from around 162,000 tonnes in the reference year 2005 to around 150,000 tonnes to date. Had the some 249 individual measures not been taken, CO2‚ emissions at Munich Airport would have been around 36,000 tonnes a year more than they actually are. Added to that is the more than 400 tonnes of savings generated by the commissioning of the first large-scale photovoltaic system by the Munich Airport Group on the roof of the P51 parking structure. In 2018, Flughafen München GmbH invested around 2.1 million euros to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 3,667 tonnes in the long term. The improved energy efficiency is particularly evident in this comparison: While passenger figures at the airport have increased by around 62 percent since 2005 and the building areas have grown by around 16 percent, the CO2 emissions of buildings, systems, and vehicles fell by some seven percent. CO2 emissions per air passenger in the same period thus fell by 43 percent. These successes make it clear that even the most ambitious of climate goals can be achieved by continuously improving efficiency in existing stock, through sustainable building construction, and through the increased use of renewable energy.  
  
With its block heat and power plant, the airport generates over half of its on-site energy requirements using natural gas. The waste heat generated from this alone covers almost all of its heating and cooling requirements without requiring the use of additional energy. The airport then covers its remaining heating requirements by procuring district heat from Fernwärmeversorgung Freising. In turn, 50 percent of the purchased district heat – i.e. around 14 Gigawatt hours (GWh) – comes from a biomass thermal power plant in Zolling, which reduces the CO2‚ emissions by a further 3,000 tonnes approximately per year. If the heat and power were generated separately in the mix applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, the amount of CO2 produced each year would be 40,000 tonnes higher.   
 
Less than a third of the power used on the airport campus comes from external energy providers. Overall, emissions produced by the external procurement of power and district heat have decreased by 25 percent since 2005. Looking at the Munich Airport Group alone, this figure has fallen by almost 50 percent. This is down to the new, even more efficient engines for cogeneration of heat and power on one hand, and reductions in power consumption on the other.  
  
Renewable energy from photovoltaic systems
In its drive to achieve a carbon-neutral airport, Munich Airport is also using renewable energy. The first larger-scale system of this type with an installed rated output of around 750 kilowatt was realized in the summer of 2018 on the new P51 parking structure. It generates around 730 megawatt hours of renewable electricity per year and thus saves 423 tonnes of CO2, annually. An expansion will take place in 2019. By 2030, systems with a total output of up to 20 megawatts are planned.  
  
LED upgrade of aprons completed A milestone has been reached on the path toward a carbon-neutral airport: 
After a six-year implementation phase and investment of more than two million euros, the airport has completed the upgrade of the apron lighting to energy-saving LED technology.  With 185,000 LEDs in around 1,900 lamps on lamp posts standing up to 34 meters tall, Munich Airport boasts one of the largest LED high mast systems in the world.  The new LED lighting impresses with its particularly high levels of energy efficiency combined with better light output, longer service life, and low maintenance costs. Already, the airport is saving around 14,700 tonnes of CO2 through the optimized lighting alone – about one fifth of that is attributable to the aprons. Time for the next major project: The external lighting in the public areas of the airport will be also be switched to LED technology by 2022.  
 

E-mobility on the rise
As part of its climate protection program, Munich Airport uses alternative fuels from renewable energy sources within its vehicle pool: 
The proportion of electric vehicles is rising significantly: By 2030, they should comprise the lion’s share of the vehicle pool. In 2018, Munich Airport replaced a further 85 of its older vehicles run on gasoline or diesel. Electric vehicles currently comprise more than 20 percent of the current vehicle pool. The six-figure, environmentally-friendly investment is supported by subsidies from the German Ministry of Transport. Compared to 2017, it proved possible to reduce the local emission of CO2 by around 76 tonnes. 


Synthetic fuels from waste
The new fuel «C.A.R.E. diesel», which is made from residual and waste materials as well as from renewable raw materials, also promises further potential. A successful practical trial was started in November 2017 in the road sweeper fleet. It has been possible, with approximately 60,000 liters of C.A.R.E. diesel, to avoid around 157 tonnes of CO2 emissions compared to conventional diesel. Use of this fuel has meanwhile been discontinued. 


CO2 target  



One of the most important elements of CO2 management is the CO2 database, which was developed by FMG and serves as a reporting, control, and monitoring instrument for all activities relating to CO2 reduction and energy efficiency.

The carbon footprint is calculated according to the specifications of the internationally recognized Greenhouse Gas Protocol, which divides emissions into three categories according to the polluter pays principle:  


Greenhouse gas emissions at Munich Airport


 
(LTO cycle: The landing and take-off cycle refers to an aircraft’s CO2 emissions on the ground and during take-off and landing below an altitude of 3,000 feet (914 meters). Up to this internationally defined height, any greenhouse gases associated with aircraft turbines are attributed to the airport concernedand distances from the airport of about eight kilometers in the case of departing aircraft, depending on the climbout,and 17 kilometers in the case of arriving aircraft.)    


Scope 3
One important factor in the climate protection strategy is the new pre-conditioned air systems (PCA systems). Since fall 2016, this technology has been supplying aircraft parked in the parking positions next to the buildings at Terminal 1, Terminal 2, and at the satellite building with pre-conditioned air. As a result, the aircraft no longer need to run their auxiliary power units (APUs), which are responsible for high levels of noise, carbon emissions, and other air pollutants. In 2018, the operating times of the 64 PCA systems increased further, which lead to a reduction of 18,364 tonnes of CO2.  
 
Flughafen München GmbH together with the airlines and the companies based at the airport also improved other climate protection measures in 2018, such as the environmentally-sound continuous descent operations (CDO) and the optimized taxiing system (ACDM; Airport Collaborative Decision Making), which reduces taxiing times.   

  
Participation: BDL, ACI, CDP, AC
In conformity with risk management, the implications of climate change are investigated and evaluated as part of CDP reporting. In this way, FMG addresses the physical, regulatory, and other relevant risks and opportunities every year. To reward its commitment to reducing climate-relevant emissions, FMG achieved a top result in the CDP once again in 2018. As well as a transparent overview of the climate protection strategy, the CDP also evaluated climate figures, and the quality and efficiency of carbon reduction measures.   For the eight consecutive time, the European airport organization ACI EUROPE awarded FMG Level 3 – Optimization for its 2017 Airport Carbon Accreditation following the successful reduction of carbon greenhouse gas emissions. 
 

Commitment to environmental standards
Munich Airport continues to be a partner in national and international airport organizations. By collaborating closely with industry associations, particularly the German Airports Association (ADV), the German Aviation Association (BDL), and the Airports Council International (ACI) Europe, FMG has access to current information from the aviation industry and helps to ensure that the industry’s interests are represented collectively. Representatives of Flughafen München GmbH are involved in environmental protection working groups at German and European level. The topics covered extend from development planning in the area of airports, to the development of systems for environmental indicators, and recommendations for noise and climate protection measures.   
 
Further information:
http://www.adv.aero/
https://www.bdl.aero/de/
http://www.aci.aero/


Air quality    
 
Influence of road and air traffic
The assessment of air quality at the airport and in the area around the airport looks at a number of important factors, including nitrogen oxide NOx, sulfur dioxide SO2 and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. In terms of air pollutants, as with CO2 the aircraft cause significantly more emissions than the ground traffic on the apron, feeder roads, and service roads. It is not possible however to differentiate between the immissions metrologically. 
 
Landing charges are also calculated based on nitrogen oxide emissions
Flughafen München GmbH levies emissions-based landing charges. This gives engine and aircraft manufacturers a long-term incentive to invest in the development of aircraft that produce less in the way of harmful emissions. Munich Airport is thus actively contributing to better environmental quality in its environs. With the information on the aircraft types that have landed, the airport can record the contaminants – including CO2 – specifically for the engine, and directly map the technical progress. 
 
Fixed and mobile measuring points
The air quality at Munich Airport is continuously monitored at two measuring points. The measurement stations in the western and eastern areas of the airport record the effect of the sources of pollutant emissions from road traffic, air traffic, and other airport operations – overlaid with the background levels from the Munich metropolitan area and the natural background concentration in the atmosphere. The contaminants ozone, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene, toluene, xylene, dustfall PM10 and particulate matter PM2.5 are monitored. The applicable statutory limits for the protection of human health were once again met in 2018. For particulate matter PM10, there were twelve (permitted) breaches of the statutory 24-hour limit. The 2018 annual averages for the key parameters of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter were in fact significantly below the limits, as they have been in previous years.  
  
Munich Airport is the first airport in Germany to additionally determine the quality of air using a mobile air quality measurement station. It measures the same substances as the stationary measuring point in the east of the airport in specialist investigations conducted over several months in the surrounding municipalities. In 2018, the mobile measurements took place in Wartenberg and Haimhausen. The measured concentrations were below the statutory limits and thus confirmed the results from the stationary measurements. 


 Keeping track of contaminants 
Long-lasting contaminants can accumulate in the environment and therefore seep into the food chain. Munich Airport has been monitoring this situation for many years using a variety of methods. In 2018, plant pots containing Italian ryegrass and kale, and pots for collecting dustfall, were set up at twelve measuring points around the airport site. 240 grass cultures and 36 kale samples provide around 1,700 measurements per year relating to air pollutants and their impact. Work also continued on the honey monitoring project in 2018.

 

Key Performance Indicators to criteria 13

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-305-1: Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Gross direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

b. Gases included in the calculation; whether CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3 or all.

c. Biogenic CO2 emissions in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

d. Base year for the calculation, if applicable, including:
i. the rationale for choosing it;
ii. emissions in the base year;
iii. the context for any significant changes in emissions that triggered recalculations of base year emissions.

e. Source of the emission factors and the global warming potential (GWP) rates used, or a reference to the GWP source.

f. Consolidation approach for emissions; whether equity share, financial control, or operational control.

g. Standards, methodologies, assumptions, and/or calculation tools used.



CO2 emissions  
In tonnes 2018
Direct emissions Scope 1 87,341
Indirect emissions Scope 2 15,045
Other indirect emissions Scope 3 47,719
Total annual CO2 emissions open to influence 150,105

Scope 1: Direct greenhouse gas emissions


Total
: 87,341 t of CO2

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-305-2: Energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Gross location-based energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

b. If applicable, gross market-based energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

c. If available, the gases included in the calculation; whether CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3, or all.

d. Base year for the calculation, if applicable, including:
i. the rationale for choosing it;
ii. emissions in the base year;
iii. the context for any significant changes in emissions that triggered recalculations of base year emissions.

e. Source of the emission factors and the global warming potential (GWP) rates used, or a reference to the GWP source.

f. Consolidation approach for emissions; whether equity share, financial control, or operational control.

g. Standards, methodologies, assumptions, and/or calculation tools used.



Scope 2:
 Indirect greenhouse gas emissions


Total
: 15,045 t of CO2

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-305-3: Other indirect (Scope 3) GHG emissions
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. Gross other indirect (Scope 3) GHG emissions in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

b. If available, the gases included in the calculation; whether CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3, or all.

c. Biogenic CO2 emissions in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

d. Other indirect (Scope 3) GHG emissions categories and activities included in the calculation.

e. Base year for the calculation, if applicable, including:
i. the rationale for choosing it;
ii. emissions in the base year;
iii. the context for any significant changes in emissions that triggered recalculations of base year emissions.

f. Source of the emission factors and the global warming potential (GWP) rates used, or a reference to the GWP source.

g. Standards, methodologies, assumptions, and/or calculation tools used.



Scope 3: Indirect greenhouse gas emissions associated with the business area of FMG  


Total: 556,299 t of CO2

Key Performance Indicator GRI SRS-305-5: Reduction of GHG emissions
The reporting organization shall report the following information:

a. GHG emissions reduced as a direct result of reduction initiatives, in metric tons of CO2 equivalent.

b. Gases included in the calculation; whether CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3, or all.

c. Base year or baseline, including the rationale for choosing it.

d. Scopes in which reductions took place; whether direct (Scope 1), energy indirect (Scope 2), and/or other indirect (Scope 3).

e. Standards, methodologies, assumptions, and/or calculation tools used.



Other greenhouse gas emissions  
CH4, N2O and greenhouse gases containing fluorine in CO2 equivalent1) (t)   2018
LTO cycle 4,483
Feeder traffic2) 328
APU3) 370
Engine test runs4) 5
Small appliances in buildings and central cooling plants 685
Mobile systems (vehicles) 174
1) Conversion of emissions into CO2 equivalent in accordance with the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report 
 
 
2) Feeder traffic includes the road traffic caused by passengers, visitors, and employees around the airport. 
 

3) Calculated from aircraft movements using the LASPORT model, taking into account the remaining APU period when using PCA 
 

4) Estimates 

FMG has lowered carbon emissions from around 162,000 tonnes in the reference year 2005 to around 150,000 tonnes to date.  

Further information: Climate protection strategy